Brain Stroke does not only involve the heart; it is also associated with the human brain.
This condition is commonly called a cerebrovascular disorder. This term represents an umbrella effect to the abnormality of the normal functions of the central nervous system which can occur mainly because of the disruption of the blood supply from the pumping center of the body, the heart, to the brain tissues.
What is Brain Stroke?
This disease is the primary reason of cerebrovascular disorder in the United States. It is the third leading reason of death following cancer and heart disease. Brain Stroke is divided into two major classifications. The Ischemic Stroke and the Hemorrhagic Stroke are two identified classifications for this condition. There are a number of similarities and a vast of the difference between the two. The more common type of stroke is the Ischemic Stroke. Transient Ischemic Attacks or the TIAs (See: TIA Stroke) happen when the blood supply of the brain for a short time has stopped.
Stroke symptoms are considered to be a medical emergency that happens when there is a cessation of blood flow to the brain. This should be addressed as fast as possible because within a matter of minutes, the cells of the brain may start to necrotize or die.
What is Ischemic Brain Stroke?
As mentioned earlier, this condition is a cerebrovascular accident or CVA and typically known as brain attack. It is characterized by ischemia of the brain cells that can further lead to the disruption of its normal functions and eventually in many cases, death. It has a similarity to heart attack and other Diseases of the Heart because aside from being a medical emergency, it is also have the same pathological origin with heart attack.
Ischemic Stroke is subdivided into five various types according to its causes. The first one is the Large Artery Thrombotic Stroke; it is caused by plaques that are termed as atherosclerosis located at the large arteries and veins of the brain. Thrombus can form within the blood vessels and a possible occlusion can arise, resulting to ischemia and infarction. The second type is called Small Penetrating Artery Thrombotic Stroke which can affect more than one blood vessel and comprises the most cases of Ischemic Stroke. It can as well be called as Lacunar Strokes due to the creation of cavities after the bereavement of the infarcted brain cells.
Another type is the Cardiogenic Embolic Stroke that is linked with the occurrence of cardiac dysrhythmias, typically atrial fibrillation. It has a high incidence to people who experiences thrombi and valvular heart disease on the left ventricle. A stroke in this condition is possible when an emboli from the hear travel through the bloodstream to the cerebral vasculature. The damage most commonly occurs in the left mid-cerebral artery. It may be averted by using anticoagulant therapy. The preceding two types, Cryptogenic and other Brain Strokes, have an unknown cause.
What are the Symptoms of Brain Stroke?
This classification of stroke can come about various manifestations that involve neurologic discrepancies that depend with the location of the tissue damage; size of the part that has inadequate perfusion; and the quantity of the collateral blood supply.
The patient may experience change in mental status or confusion; difficulty speaking and understanding speeches; weakness of the face, legs, arms and on the side of the body; numbness; visual disturbances, abrupt severe headache; difficulty walking, loss of balance and dizziness. Cranial nerve, motor, cognitive, sensory, and other functions may be interrupted.
For the visual disturbances, it involves the loss of peripheral vision or the difficulty of seeing during night time; diplopia (double vision) and homonymous hemianopsia or loss of half of the field of vision. Motor deficits are also present such as hemiparesis (weakness of the opposite side of the body), hemiplegia or paralysis of the other side of the body, ataxia (staggering gait), dysarthria (difficulty of forming words) and dysphagia or difficulty in swallowing.
When it concerns about sensory deficits, it pertains to paresthesia or the tingling and numbness of extremities and difficulty with proprioception. For verbal dysfunctions, it may involve expressive aphasia (inability to create new words that are comprehensible and uses single word responses), receptive aphasia or the inability to understand the spoken statement but can speak with no sense; global aphasia, the combination of both expressive and receptive aphasia.
Symptoms of Brain Stroke may as well include cognitive and emotional deficits. Cognitive deficits comprise of decreased attention span, short and long term memory loss, altered judgment and poor abstract reasoning. Moreover, emotional deficits consist of emotional lability, depression, and feeling of isolation, loss of self control, withdrawal, fear, anger, hostility and decreased tolerance to stressful circumstances. Due to these numerous symptoms that may come about on a Stroke patient, the care and management encompasses a vast collaboration of therapies to improve the patient’s well being and capacity.