Spinal meningitis is a disease that causes the swelling of the inner lining of the spinal cord and the brain.
The inflammation can result in the destruction of neurons or nerve cells. The contraction of this condition is identified as a medical emergency due to the following reasons: 1. the disease has a high mortality or death rate if left not treated, and 2. the manifestations are tremendously painful and can pilot to secondary deficiencies that may be severe. Spinal meningitis is distinguished by the swelling of membranes inside the spinal cord. The manifestations of spinal meningitis involve hyperthermia (over 100 degree Fahrenheit), dementia, nucchal rigidity, and severe headache.
What is Spinal Meningitis?
Initially, spinal meningitis may feel akin to flu. Chills, lethargy, and hyperthermia are typically initial manifestations, and if an individual feels that he has a flu or common cold, management may not be required immediately. Photophobia or light sensitivity or nucchal rigidity must soon follow, nevertheless, and these are traditional manifestations of spinal meningitis.
The probability of spinal meningitis is identified very critically, and a doctor will initially order a spinal tap or lumbar puncture so that the patient may microscopically assess spinal fluid for a differential CBC or complete blood count. The individual will as well perform a bacterial sensitivity culture and chemical analysis. Neurologic deficiencies are typical because meningitis infection concerns the spinal cord and as well as the brain. If there is any indication of an increase of ICP or intracranial pressure, the doctor will suggest a CT scan of the brain tissue to seek and locate any herniation or damage of the brain tissue.
What Causes Spinal Meningitis?
The causes of this condition are commonly a viral or bacterial infection. Most frequently, the immune system of the body is able to defeat and confine an infection. But if the disease spread into the bloodstream then into the CFS, which encloses the spinal cord and the brain, it can involve the nerves and extend to the adjacent membranes and the brain. This event may cause inflammation. The swelling and inflammation causes the manifestations of meningitis.
Other origins of spinal meningitis involve:
- Few forms of Cancer
- Fungal disease
- Traumatic damage to the spine or brain
- Inflammatory condition like lupus and other autoimmune diseases
- Response to particular drugs or medical treatments
What are the Symptoms of Meningitis (Spinal)?
Typical manifestations of spinal meningitis involve:
- Hyperthermia or high grade fever
- Nucchal rigidity
- Nausea and vomiting
- Confusion and drowsiness
- Photophobia or photo sensitivity
In neonates and small babies, the traditional manifestations are hyperthermia, nucchal rigidity, and headache. They can be not present or tricky to diagnose. The newborn may only show inactive or slow and irritable. Newborns can as well vomit or eat poorly. As the condition develops, patient of any age group can have seizure attacks. Anybody with probable manifestations must seek instantaneous medical intervention by getting in touch with their physicians or going to a clinic or emergency room.
How to Diagnose Spinal Meningitis?
Initial diagnosis and management of meningitis infection are essential. The condition is frequently diagnosed using laboratory assessments of the cerebrospinal fluid acquired via lumbar puncture. A lumbar puncture is a diagnostic exam wherein a syringe is introduces into the spinal canal in the lower portion of the back where spinal fluid is extracted.
For variety of bacteria, recognition of the bacteria accountable is essential so that the proper antibiotic treatment can be prescribed by the physician. The particular origin of viral type may be determined by diagnostic exams that identify the virus contained in the specimen acquired from the patient. Nevertheless, these parameters are rarely performed because the management for aseptic meningitis does not depend on the form of virus accountable.
Preventing Spinal Meningitis Using Meningitis Vaccine
Meningitis vaccine has been made for particular strains of meningitis, even though few are more efficient than others. Particular meningitis vaccine is prevalent in Africa and Norway have been provided a great achievement, and vaccines for juvenile meningitis have also been relatively successful.
Yes, spinal meningitis can be prevented using meningitis vaccine against Hib and other strains of meningitis infection. The vaccine is highly effective and harmless. Meningitis incidence must be reported to accredited health sectors to ensure a follow-up recognition of outbreaks. Pneumovac or the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine shows to be successful in newborns for the prevention of meningitis.
Management for Meningitis Infection
The bacterial type of spinal meningitis has a high mortality rate if left not treated, so it necessitates instantaneous medical intervention. This form may be managed with numerous efficient antibiotic treatments. It is essential, nevertheless, that management be commenced early in the progression of the disease. Suitable antibiotic regimen of most typical types of bacteria spinal meningitis must lessen the chances of dying from the disease to below fifteen per cent, even though the chances is higher among the old ones.